All About Quantum Computer
Quantum computers, as the name suggests, work on the strange principles of quantum mechanics to manipulate information and are ready to revolutionize our computing capabilities. With companies such as IBM and Google already building the first prototypes, they are expected to advance the technology with higher speed, precision and security by completing tasks that would be impossible for normal computers to tackle.
Quantum bit and superposition principle.
Quantum computers rely on qubits as the basic unit of information. Unlike traditional binary computers operating on units of information represented by ones or zeros, qubits can exist simultaneously as “1” and “0”. This is made possible by what physicists call the superposition principle, which states that a quantum system can exist in several separate quantum states at the same time.
Do you remember Schrödinger’s cat?
This thought experiment describes a scenario in which a cat is placed in a box containing a bottle of poison and a radioactive atom. When the atom breaks down, it breaks the jar and kills the cat, but there is no way to tell if the cat is alive or dead without opening the box.
Essentially, until the box is opened and the cat’s condition is “measured,” it can be considered to have both states simultaneously, that is, the cat coincides as alive and dead.
This is an overly simplified and imperfect way of relating quantum mechanics to something concrete.
However, like Schrödinger’s cat, the ultimate quantum computer computation occurs only when qubits are measured and their quantum states “collapse” to 1 or 0. This property allows a quantum computer with several overlapping qubits to store large amounts of data and reason quickly. Complex problems, situations or computing tasks by exploring multiple paths at once and choosing the most efficient.
How do qubits make a quantum computer?
The idea of a qubit sounds pretty simple, but it actually poses a minor engineering problem because they are extremely susceptible to tampering and require very specific pressure, temperature, and insulation to function properly.
Qubits are subatomic particles such as isolated electrons, trapped ions, or photons in a controlled quantum state. This is done physically by manipulating the excited states of the particle as an example, using laser pulses to bring them into a superposition state.
The slightest change in the environment of the particle, such as external electric or magnetic fields from nearby devices or even radiation from space, can provide the energy needed to cause them to go out of the overlap, so they are sealed. supercooled. vacuum chambers to prevent interference.
What is meant by quantum entanglement and how quantum computers more powerful with this?
Individual qubits can be connected through a phenomenon called quantum entanglement. At the fundamental level, when two quantum particles are entangled, they exist in the same quantum states. Changing anything about the quantum state of a particle (ie measuring it) instantly changes the state of the other, even if it is separated by large distances; In fact, recent experiments have shown entanglement between two photons, one on Earth and the other on a satellite in orbit, separated by a distance of 1203 kilometers. Einstein called this open link “spooky action at a distance.”
It also provides overlapping qubits that can be entangled in chains to exponentially increase the power of a quantum computer. For example, an eight-bit binary computer can represent any number between 0 and 225; A quantum computer with eight qubits can represent all numbers between 0 and 255 at the same time. Now imagine the possibilities for these qubits to be entangled with x partners in a complete network of entangled particles!
What will quantum computers be used for?
It is not designed to be used for everyday tasks such as emailing, spreadsheets or even playing games. Instead, quantum computers would become a problem-solving tool because their computing power would allow them to perform complex calculations, predictions, simulations, and database searches.
For example, traditional computers have difficulty with systems based primarily on quantum mechanics, such as understanding the behavior and properties of complex materials or accurately modeling a chemical reaction. The nature of these systems limits the ability of a conventional computer to solve them.
Another hope is that quantum computers can explore thousands of possibilities and solve problems that require trial and error before reaching the best or correct answer.
The complexity of the problem increases exponentially with the number of islands. There are still no classical algorithms that do better than go through all possible options to determine the best, which can take many years to explore a classic computer.
The hope is that, due to the principles of quantum mechanics, a quantum computer can solve such problems efficiently in seconds.
What is quantum supremacy?
Quantum supremacy refers to the moment when a quantum computer is able to outperform a traditional system or perform a task that would otherwise be considered impossible even for a powerful supercomputer. The term itself is controversial, some researchers suggest “quantum advantage” instead.
In 2019, Google reportedly achieved quantum supremacy, in partnership with NASA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, by completing a task that would take a quantum computer supercomputer thousands of years in seconds.
While there are rumors surrounding this success, there seem to be mixed feelings among experts as to whether this milestone has actually been reached. Google’s quantum computer was able to perform the calculations in just 200 seconds, but was their answers correct?
When will a universal quantum computer be built?
Keeping a qubit in an overlapping state is not an easy task, and even the slightest change in the environment can cause it to crash before the calculation or task is finished. This phenomenon, known as a quantum mismatch, is a big problem as it allows errors to enter calculations.
To solve this problem, algorithms have been developed, and also qubits are added. However, scientists have not yet created an error-free and widely usable quantum computer.
There is still some debate among experts about whether quantum computers will live up to their expectations, and computer scientists definitely have a lot of work ahead of them. Companies such as Google and IBM are scrambling to lead this field and predict the development of universal quantum computers in the years to come.
Even then, some experts believe these issues are not worth all of them, as there are some functional and cost barriers that cannot be overcome.
The field is still in its infancy, but if successful, quantum computers can transform technology as we know it. Only time will tell!